A NEW SPECIES OF NEOGLYPTATELUS (MAMMALIA, XENARTHRA, CINGULATA) FROM THE LATE MIOCENE OF URUGUAY PROVIDES NEW INSIGHTS ON THE EVOLUTION OF THE DORSAL ARMOR IN CINGULATES -- Preprint doi:10.5710/AMGH.02.12.2017.3150

Juan C. Fernicola, Andrés Rinderknecht, Washington Jones, Sergio F. Vizcaíno, Kleberson Propino

Abstract


The genus Neoglyptatelus has been considered a member of Glyptatelinae, a group encompassing the purportedly basal most glyptodonts. It is up to now represented by two species from Colombia: Neoglypatelus orginalis from the middle Miocene (carapace fragment, isolated osteoderms, and postcranial bones) and Neoglyptetalus sincelejanus from the middle or late Miocene (partial carapace and caudal armor). More scarce material assigned to this genus was recovered from the late Miocene of Uruguay and Brazil. In this article we describe a new species, Neoglypatelus uruguayense, from the late Miocene Camacho Formation, Uruguay, based on an almost complete carapace and several postcranial bones. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis based on 167 morphological characters (23 new and 144 from previous analysis) scored for 19 taxa, encompassing some of the best known glyptodontid genera, one pampathere, and four armadillos (including the enigmatic genus Pachyarmatherium). In the most parsimonious tree obtained Neoglyptatelus forms a clade with Pachyarmatheirum (Pachyarmatheriidae), which is the sister group of the glyptodonts + pampatheres clade; consequently it is not a glyptodont as previously believed. This result, coupled with the known stratigraphic and geographic distribution of Neoglypatelus and Pachyarmatherium, suggests that this new cingulate clade have originated in South America and that Pachyarmatherium reached North America during the Plio-Pleistocene. The carapace of Neoglyptaelus and Pachyarmatherium, comprises pelvic and scapular shields overlapping each other without separate intervening transverse mobile bands, an arrangement that differentiate both genera from the remaining cingulates.

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